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General

Positive and negative effects of hunting

Hunting was the way of life thousands of years ago, long before man had learned to grow their own food. The only way for prehistoric man to survive as to hunt their food down, just like the animals that caught and killed their prey to get sustenance. We have come a long way since then, learning how to grow our own crops and raising farms with animals for meat. Yet, hunting remains at large in the world; while some people hunt for food, others do so for sport. In recent times, a lot of contention has risen over the practice of hunting, with many groups calling for the banning of this practice. However, the issue is not so black and white. In this article, we will discuss both the positive and negative effects of hunting.

Positive and negative effects of hunting

Positive effects of hunting:

Let us begin with the positive effects.

Provides sustenance

Hunting provides food for some sections of the society. While most of the world population depends on farm grown meat and crops, certain populations still depend on hunting for a large part of their sustenance. The Australian aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders, for instance, hunt flying foxes as a means of their sustenance. Besides, this also provide them with valuable economic benefits; since flying foxes are a rare commodity, and have considerable ethnic and exotic value attached to then thanks to their association with a minority group, there is considerable demand for flying fox meat among tourists. Expatriate aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders also look for the meat since it has spiritual connotations in their culture. This makes hunting a valuable source of income for these populations.

Controls animal population

Hunting is often undertaken in order to control the growing population of certain animals. In some parts of the United States, residents are given permission to hunt down deer, while in some parts of Australia, it is legal to hunt kangaroos. It is to be kept in mind, however, that indiscriminate killing is prohibited, and there are strict laws in place to regulate the sex of the hunted animal and the number of animals each person can kill. Such regulated hunting can keep the animal population in check. There are lower incidences of loss in property caused when they invade residential areas; besides, population control also ensures that the remaining members of the species live a healthy life with enough to eat and enough space to spread out.

Maintains ecological balance

Surprisingly enough, hunting maintains balance in the ecosystem. When there is overpopulation of a certain species in a certain area, it disrupts the finely tuned ecological balance. Other animals are negatively affected as there is significant shortage of food due to overcrowding. If the unchecked growth continues and the animal is a predator, this leads to significant damage to the populations of other animals that it considers to be its prey. The prey population begins to diminish rapidly, disrupting the ecological balance. What’s more, this also means that the predators themselves die out due to lack of food.  If the law allows hunting as a measure to check population growth, it will certainly be a good way of ensuring that the ecological balance is maintained.  Besides, park permits and licenses that have to be taken out in order to hunt cost money, which is then used by the authorities for the betterment of the environment.

Negative effects of hunting:

All said and done, there are some very obvious negative implications of hunting.

Killing is unethical

First of all, there is the obvious ethical issue. Humane societies are very vocal against hunting of any kind, citing as reason that animals feel the same pain and horror that a human would when faced by a predator. The pain that an animal feels while being stabbed or shot is the same as what a human would feel. Therefore, there is no logic to killing innocent animals for the purpose of population control, especially since many animals use their natural methods of dividing territory.

Leads to extinction

Despite there being many laws in place to regulate hunting, illegal trafficking and poaching of animals happen to be a very real thing even today. A number of species have been rendered extinct due to indiscriminate hunting for either sport or food, and many more are teetering on the verge of extinction for the very same reasons. Environmentalists argue that without the banning of hunting, many species will be going the way of the dodo.

Hunting is definitely one of the most contentious topics of today. It is not a black and white question that can be easily answered. One thing, however, is for sure, neither group- those that oppose and those that support hunting, have anything to say in support of hunting for sport. The bottom line, clearly, is this: if you do kill, kill for the greater good.

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General Society

Positive and negative effects of marriage

Marriage is probably one of the oldest institutions of human civilization. The earliest marriages probably consisted of a man and a woman deciding to live together for purely material reasons: food, protection, and bearing children. At some point, the requirements evolved to include love and companionship. For many years, marriage has been held as a sacred institution above all question. In recent times, however, this institution has come under considerable scrutiny. With changing lifestyles and societal values, a growing demographic is looking at marriage as no more than an option; choosing instead an alternative lifestyle of cohabiting or staying single. While the orthodox population may raise eyebrows at this mindset, opponents of marriage have a lot to say about their views. And truth be told, there is some validity to both viewpoints.

Positive and negative effects of marriage

Positive side of marriage:

First of all, let us see how the proponents defend marriage.

Emotional stability

Marriage has a huge emotional impact on the persons entering into the institution. People in happy marriages are statistically seen to have longer healthier life spans. All humans look for stability and security, and that begins with the family. Getting married creates an emotional sense of stability and settlement, thanks to the preconceived notion of paring for life, which is highly beneficial for mental peace. Every human looks for love and companionship, and it is emotionally good to know that there is someone to share life experiences with.

Easier rearing of children

Statistically, it has been seen that a household with married partners create a better environment for a child to grow up in. While it is definitely not impossible to raise a child in a single pent household, it is certainly easier to do so in a home where there are two parents to take care of the child. Raising a child and managing a household is a huge responsibility, and having someone else to take care of some of the work certainly makes the job much easier.

Easier workload

Apart from raising a child, marriage also provides untold benefits when it comes to sharing responsibilities and finances. It becomes easier to manage a household when duties are shared, and there is legal binding to take financial responsibility. Finances can be shared as well, so that there is less pressure on each person. For instance, if one person takes a break from working, the other person can still manage the household expenses with their income.

Negative side of marriage:

There is, however, a lot of truth in what the opponents of marriage have to say as well.

Legal implications

Marriage is a legally binding contract, and the legal and financial implications might make many a couple hesitate to call it quits even when their relationship has fallen apart. This creates an extremely unhealthy atmosphere at home, not just for the partners, but also for the child, if any. Divorce proceedings are also pretty huge, taking into account lawyer fees, alimony, child support, and prenuptial agreements. Besides, a divorce is harrowing for everyone emotionally as well, and it takes quite some time to get over the trauma.

Expensive

Marriages are definitely costly. The simplest of weddings happen to be a pretty costly affair, what with the venue and its decoration, the attire, the food and drinks, and the return gifts. If you do not own a home already, you need to buy one to shift into, or rent one, because your single person apartment might not be able to accommodate two people. And then there is the added, albeit welcome, expenses that children incur. And it is not just financial expenses that weddings incur; you also have to pay the price of your freedom to a certain extent, and of course the carefree lifestyle you possibly led when you were single.

Daunting responsibilities

Marriage brings with it a bunch of responsibilities that not everyone will be willing or ready to take up. You suddenly become responsible not just for yourself, but for another person, and then for two or more people when you have children. You need to take an active part in a two person household, keep tab on children, and mingle with your in laws, a whole different family. This can be a daunting prospect if you are not in the right frame of mind for it.

Marriage as an institution has been here a very long time, and will possibly continue to stay for some time more. It provides a sense of security, belonging, and ownership that few other institutions can provide. However, that does not at all mean that the choice to not marry is wrong. It is, after all, a very personal decision; if a person who cohabits or stays single is just as happy as the married couple, there is n reason why they would not continue their lifestyle. Like everything else, how a marriage affects a person depends entirely on the people who are in the marriage and how they handle their relationship status.

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General Society

Positive and negative effects of brain drain

Brain drain is a constant source of concern in most countries that rank lower in the development index, and countries suffering from political or religious instability. On the face of it, it is difficult to support a process that ultimately entails a country losing valuable human resource. However, some would argue that brain drain is inevitable and even necessary. In this article, we will look at both sides, and the factors that prompt this phenomenon.

Positive and negative effects of brain drain

What is brain drain?

First of all, we need to know what brain drain is.

In layman’s terms, brain drain is described as the phenomenon that involves migration of educated and/or talented individuals from one country to another. There are a variety of factors contributing to this process, namely, poverty, political/religious strife, poor standard of living, and lack of opportunities in the home country. This is seen mostly in lesser developed nations, as the educated and skilled workforce leave their country of origin and move to better developed areas for search of work and a better standard of life. This can even happen in the form of educational migration; youngsters leave their country of origin to a different country for better educational prospects and often settle in the area they have migrated to.

Different people, different opinions

It is not easy to lay down the benefits and drawbacks of brain drain in black and white terms. The benefits and drawbacks will vary from person to person, and will be different from different perspectives. For instance, the country that imports the skilled workforce will certainly support the process as it helps to build their economy, but the country that these people are migrating from will vehemently oppose this process as it makes them lose some very important people. On the other hand, the person who is migrating will be in favor of brain drain since it leads to personal gain, while the residents of the country where this person has moved to might feel cheated out of a possible job by an immigrant.

Positive for the expatriate:

A person leaving a country to work in another place is usually motivated by better standard of living and better pay. In less developed countries, a person usually have to spend a lot on education, which means that they must take up a job that can pay off this amount ad leave enough to lead a decent life. In most underdeveloped and developed nations, this poses a challenge with wither fewer jobs available, or with none of the jobs paying high enough to fulfill these criteria. An individual moving to a more developed country gets these requirements fulfilled. Besides, this usually translates to earning in a higher valued currency, which means a better standard of living for their family at home, if this is the case.

Mixed feelings in receiving nation

People in the developed countries that see a lot of emigrations in the form of brain drain can feel lost in these circumstances. Most immigrants are willing to work at a lower salary than any resident of the country would, and this is a great opportunity for companies to hire people who are more than or just as skilled as their indigenous workforce and pay less for the same. This means that the practice of brain drain translates to lower number of job opportunities for the natives of a country, who have to work extra hard to outperform the people who are hired from other countries. This, in severe cases, might translate to widespread unemployment for indigenous residents of a country.

Negative for the home country:

The country that experiences brain drain is faced with a great problem: lack of human resources. The more erudite and talented people move away to settle in more developed nations, the less chances for the home country of developing. Without skilled workforce and fresh ideas, the country’s infrastructure will start to collapse, or at least become stagnant with no improvement. For instance, if most civil engineers and skilled surgeons migrate from a country to a different one in search for better opportunities, the home country will fail to build new roads and buildings, and the medical sector will be in shambles. This happens in every sector. If educated people are hired by foreign companies to work in foreign soil, this will mean that no innovation will ever be made. This will lead to more people leaving, starting off a vicious cycle.

It is not easy to decide whether brain drain brings benefits or bad times; it all depends on where on the line you are standing. one thing is for sure: no one would want to leave their home country and go to a place were their reception will probably be lukewarm at best, but people are still forced to undertake this journey every day.  The only way to stop this is to create opportunities and improve infrastructure and that truly lies in the hands of the administration.

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General Society

Positive and negative effects of consumerism

The textbook definition of consumerism is the practice of purchasing goods that are classified as being beyond the basic necessities of life, such as food, clothing, and shelter. Today, these basic necessities have expanded to a certain extent; a private vehicle is eminently useful, as is a cell phone and to a certain extent, a computer. Apart from this, everything is classified as consumer goods. A luxury clothing brand and an entertainment system fall under this category, as do toys, film and video game merchandise, and designer furniture and jewelry. This is a far from comprehensive list, and barely touches the tip of the iceberg; currently, a huge portion of the world spends more on consumer items than they do on savings and stocks.

The developed and developing world has, to a large extent, become embroiled in this extremely consumerist culture. Since it does not seem possible to extricate ourselves out of it, let us see what the possible benefits and drawbacks of consumerism are.

Positive effects of consumerism:

Let us begin with the benefits.

Economic growth

The most obvious benefit is of course economic growth. This happens as a series of events. When a great many people buy goods and services, gross expenditure on these products increase, and that leads to greater turnover. Retailers and manufacturers earn more, and people are motivated to earn more so that they can afford these consumer products. Manufacture of these goods increases manifold, leading to more units and employment for a lot more people.

More employment

Consumerism increases the movement in the demand and supply chain. The more people buy, the more demand is created for a product, which leads to increased production. Again, the increase in production leads to increased purchase. This, in turn, leads to increased employment as more people are employed in factories that make these goods. As retailers and manufacturing companies get bigger, they also employ a lot more people.

Better products

Creativity and market innovation takes the front seat in consumer culture as the customer takes the wheel. People look for better alternatives all the time, and competition among companies grow as more companies are formed to meet the customer demand. In such a situation, it becomes imperative for the manufacturers to sell superior products at competitive prices. Lower quality products receive flak from the consumers, and companies that sell them face the risk of being edged out of the market.

Better living standards

Yet another very obvious effect of a consumer oriented market is the possibility of better living standards.  With the availability of a number of goods in the market, the average person can pick and choose among the products offered without having to settle for a single variation.  Lifestyles improve as people can get their hands on better homes, better furniture, better vehicles, and better clothing. Pocket pinch is also considerably lower as companies strive to get their customers’ attention via competitive pricing and regular discounts.

Negative effects of consumerism:

However, consumerism has its downsides as well, as can be seen from the current global climate.

Bad for small industries

Local industries run the risk of being negatively affected by the rise of consumerism. Since consumerist countries usually have a higher purchase power, high quality goods that are not available indigenously are imported from elsewhere. In a consumerist economy, people are willing to pay a higher price for an established brand in hopes of getting an authentic or higher quality product even though local brads would probably make the same thing at a lower price. In such cases, the local industry might get edged out of the market owing to lack of customers; if they do remain in business, they are forced to manufacture cheaper goods at a low quality because of the lack of revenue.

Ecological disruption

Consumerism translates to the building more factories and wide scale urbanization. This leads to a serious depletion of natural resources; forests are cut down and water bodies closed up in order to make room for urban or commercial development. This leads to damages on a far greater scale with considerable impact on ecology. The environment is also affected due to the increased levels of pollution from these factories and settlements, and also directly from the products are being sold and purchased.

The consumerist culture is not something we can do without. It has become more or less part and parcel of our lives, and in some ways, it is proof of a country’s economic prosperity. USA leads the world in a consumer-driven economy, but developing countries such as India and China are jumping on the bandwagon as well.  If the current trade continues, most nations will join in the party.

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Health

Positive and negative effects of depression

Depression is the commonest mental disorder diagnosed around the world, and is one of the most prevalent causes of deaths by suicide and deaths in general. Depression is characterized by feelings of anxiety, hopelessness, and worthlessness, and is brought about by chemical and hormonal imbalances compounded by immediate or continuous external circumstances. Its treatment requires therapy and counseling, along with medication in some cases. Unless diagnosed and treated early, depression can grow to dangerous levels to a point where a person becomes a threat to themselves and to their close ones. The good news is, it is eminently curable given time and correct treatment.

In this article, we will look at the bad and the good (yes, there are some) effects of depression.

Negative effects of depression:

First, let us talk about the obvious.

Helplessness and trauma

The most obvious side effect of depression is the symptoms themselves. A person suffering from depression feels helpless and trapped in their situation, and an overwhelming sense of pessimism. This leads to a severe lack of energy, which in turn translates to poor performance at work or in academics. This situation in turn helps to worsen the depression itself as the person continues to feel more and more worthless, and soon loses all enthusiasm in daily duties and even formerly enjoyable tasks, including eating and sex.

Worsening relationships

Another major side effect of depression is the deteriorating relationships the affected person faces. Depression if often characterized by extreme levels of paranoia and the feeling of inadequacy, which cause the person to become overly suspicious or extremely withdrawn. The feeling of inadequacy, especially, leads a person to believe that everyone around them hold a similar opinion, and prompts them t close up even further. Unless treated, all attempts at communication are usually rebuffed, and such behavior often leads to complete isolation. The irritability often associated with the illness also contributes to this breakdown in relationships.

Suicidal tendencies

Untreated depression can grow to consume a person’s entire existence, and the very act of living can become painful to them. In such a situation, the affected individual often chooses to put an end to this suffering by killing themselves. Depression is one of the leading causes of death around the world, and the numbers are steadily rising. Self harm is also common among individuals suffering from depression; even if luckily the self harm and suicide attempts do not result in death, they can do long term damage to the body that might well be impossible to recover from.

Physical threats

Depression is physically harmful as well, even without the suicide risk. Studies have shown that depression is considerably linked to heart diseases, obesity, diabetes, and mental decline, and the host of other illnesses that come hand in hand with these problems. The reason is quite obvious: the person who suffers from depression tends to overeat, cut down on exercise, indulge in substance abuse, and refrain from positive mental exercise.

Positive effects of depression:

However, in a recent, rather exciting study conducted by the researchers from various universities, it was found the depression does indeed have some positive effects as well.

Makes you analytical

Depression is apparently good at making people more analytical. Since the brain of a depressed person functions somewhat differently, they tend to analyze and break down every task into smaller components so as to be better at dealing with them. This also makes them much better at performing sequential tasks such as shopping, cleaning, and solving complex mathematical problems.

Breeds compassion

From a more psychological perspective depression helps a person become more compassionate and less judgmental. Since the affected person goes through hell and can- in the good days- trace their feelings back to internal and external circumstances, they are less likely to judge someone whose behavior is less than socially accepted. They are not a lot less likely to flip out and give someone a verbal lashing because that person did not completely live up to social norms of behavior, and will assume that something is probably causing this behavior.

The biggest issue with depression, even today, is probably the social stigma that surrounds it. It is imperative that this mindset change and people learn to accept mental illness of any kind as no different from physical ailments; they are just as dangerous, and sometimes even more threatening, than physical ailments, especially if the mind chooses to reject the treatment. If you feel that you are posing risk to yourself, or experiencing symptoms that are out of the ordinary, consult a medical practitioner immediate without worrying about what people might say.  Depression is dangerous irrespective of the positive side effects, and needs to be weeded out of your system right away.

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General

Positive and negative effects of competition

In this highly competitive world, there is no need to explain what competition is. The dictionary tells us that competition is all about pitting yourself against your peers, and often against yourself. Competition is being in the race and the strife to come first. Competition is trying to win in every situation. We are instilled with a sense of competition from a very young age at school, we are told to excel in academics by leaving our peers behind, in the field, and at work, we need to do better than the others so that our appraisals translate into great hikes in salary and perks. This is, in fact, a healthy trait as it allows us to do better, but sometimes things can take an ugly turn. In this article, we will look at both sides of the issue.

Positive effects of competition:

First of all, we will look at the positive effects of competition.

Prevents stagnation

Competition is what keeps us moving forward. Imagine a workplace where you are the only employee. You would never have to go the extra mile to prove yourself against your colleagues, to get that extra benefit and early promotion.  You would be stuck in a rut, never having the zeal to do better and learn new things. What you knew would be enough, because there would be no one to prove you wrong or pose a threat to your position.

Incentive for improvement 

The knowledge that there are others who would gladly take your position acts as the incentive to improve ourselves. Suppose you are a company that creates a product no one else does. You would be supremely complacent in what you create, because there is no one to say that they can create the exact same thing, or improve on your model. As a result, people will quickly lose interest in what you make because they would see no improvement; if what you make is an essential item, your consumers will be stuck with a possibly inferior or mediocre product, but they will have no other choice.

Good for business

Being competitive is the key to growing a business. You provide a product or a service that is provided by a number of other companies. This means that you have a lot of competition in your sector, with other companies always trying to eat into your business. The only way forward is to ensure that you improve what you are providing, so that you can set yourself apart from the others. Once you do that, your customers will see that your company is the one to opt for. And as any businessman knows, if what you provide is of supreme quality, people will happily pay a higher price for it.

Negative effects of competition:

All said and done, competition can become extremely unhealthy if things go out of hand.

Makes you unproductive

Unhealthy competition is nothing but jealousy. If your competitiveness goes out of hand, it will turn into sheer jealousy. And that has no positive effects; jealousy is all consuming and leads to groundless speculations about the success of others. Jealousy serves no purpose but to make you extremely unhappy and ultimately completely unproductive. You will be so consumed in lamenting your fate and condemning the success of others that in the end, you will be able to do nothing to change things.

Can become corrupt

When competition becomes unhealthy, it leads to corruption. We read and hear about crimes being committed out of jealousy and unhealthy competition. Students have been known to kill their biggest competitor, and sportsmen have been brought to shame by news of their use of performance enhancing drugs. Nothing good ever comes out of letting your competitiveness get out of hand; it is important to remember that it is a competition, not a fight, and participation is often more important than winning.

Leads to exhaustion

An incredible level of competition will leave you exhausted. If you are constantly in the rat race, pushing your limits and trying to do better than others, it takes a mental and physical stress on you, and you are likely to burn out very early. Besides, the load of expectation that you set upon yourself will also leave you in constant fear of not meeting them, and can lead to a variety of psychosomatic illnesses.

The best course of action is always to take things easy, but not too easy. If you do not participate in competition, you will probably be very happy for the time being, but ultimately you will feel left out, regretful, and sorry for yourself when you see your peers moving far ahead in life than you. But it is also important to keep in mind that getting way too competitive will come in the way of healthy relationships and a healthy personality.

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General Society

Positive and negative effects of Migration

Migration refers to permanent or temporary change in the place of residence of people or a group of people. The reasons that people migrate would be due to push and pull factors. Push and Pull factors are forces that can either induce people to move to a new location or oblige them to leave old residences. It influences the social, political, economic life of the people of a country which has higher immigrants. International migration has become an important feature in globalized markets influencing the economic growth. The impact of the migration is complex for both the country and the immigrants. There are different reasons for migration such as nowadays people are leaving their native countries in order to find a better place to live. They may also move voluntary or being forced to move. One of the best reasons to move is job opportunities. In developing countries there are lot of unemployment because the lacking of work field. Therefore, many unemployment from developing countries move to any developed countries in order to find a better job. Moreover, people may move to developed countries because the medical treatment and education is much better compared to developing countries. And sometimes the standard of living is much cheaper. People are also forced to migrate due to reasons such as natural disaster, wars, crimes, crisis, and any other bad things.

Positive effects of Migration:

Migration can have positive and negative effects for both country losing migrants, and the country gaining immigrants. The positives are such that migration brings people into contact with entirely new ways of life. Developing countries benefited from remittances that now often outstrip foreign aid. Unemployment is reduced and young migrants enhance their life prospects. Returning migrants bring savings, skills and international contacts. Job vacancies and skill gaps can be filled. Economic growth can be sustained. Services to an ageing population can be maintained where there are insufficient young people locally. The pension gap can be filled by the contributions of new young workers and they also pay taxes. Immigrants bring energy and innovation. Host countries are enriched by cultural diversity. It growth in economy. In the long term, both high and low skilled workers who migrate brings benefits facilitate to their new home countries by increasing income per person and living standards. High skilled migrants bring diverse talent and expertise, while low-skilled migrants fill essential occupation for which natives are in short supply and allow natives to be employed at higher-skilled jobs. Gains are broadly shared by the population, so it may be well worth shouldering the short- term costs to help integrate these new workers. The other positive effects of migration are that migrants get to see new places, meet new people, knows about culture, food habits and might pick up a new language or two. Settling down by all themselves make them more self-reliant and confident.

Negative effects of Migration:

The negative effects are, there is economic disadvantage for the origin country through the loss of young workers. There is loss of highly trained people especially health workers. The children face social problem who are left alone and growing up without wider family circle. The countries where people migrate also faces problem such as there can be depression in wages but it is temporary. They may have workers who are willing to work for relatively low pay that may allow employers to ignore productivity, training and innovation. Migrants can be exploited. Increase in population can put pressure on public sector. The migration can also increase the unemployment rate if there are unrestricted number of incomers. There may be integration difficulties and friction with local people. Large movements of people lead to more security monitoring and ease of movement may facilitate organized crime and people trafficking. By the immigrants’ perspective, Immigrant families almost always undergo stresses because different generation belong to different cultures. Often, grandparents whose English is very limited cannot communicate with their own grandchildren, who speaks only the language of the family’s new country. For most immigrants, the greatest obstacle to life in a new country is the new language. Adults typically have to struggle with new language for years.
The conclusion is migration is a feature of social and economic life across many countries, but the profile of migrant populations varies considerably. In part this is because of the variety of sources of migration. In much of Europe, for example, citizens enjoy extensive rights to free movement. In Australia, Canada and New Zealand, managed labor migration plays an important role. Other sources include family and humanitarian migration. Whatever its source, migration has important impacts on our societies, and these can be controversial. The economic impact of migration is no exception.