Migration refers to permanent or temporary change in the place of residence of people or a group of people. The reasons that people migrate would be due to push and pull factors. Push and Pull factors are forces that can either induce people to move to a new location or oblige them to leave old residences. It influences the social, political, economic life of the people of a country which has higher immigrants. International migration has become an important feature in globalized markets influencing the economic growth. The impact of the migration is complex for both the country and the immigrants. There are different reasons for migration such as nowadays people are leaving their native countries in order to find a better place to live. They may also move voluntary or being forced to move. One of the best reasons to move is job opportunities. In developing countries there are lot of unemployment because the lacking of work field. Therefore, many unemployment from developing countries move to any developed countries in order to find a better job. Moreover, people may move to developed countries because the medical treatment and education is much better compared to developing countries. And sometimes the standard of living is much cheaper. People are also forced to migrate due to reasons such as natural disaster, wars, crimes, crisis, and any other bad things.
Positive effects of Migration:
Migration can have positive and negative effects for both country losing migrants, and the country gaining immigrants. The positives are such that migration brings people into contact with entirely new ways of life. Developing countries benefited from remittances that now often outstrip foreign aid. Unemployment is reduced and young migrants enhance their life prospects. Returning migrants bring savings, skills and international contacts. Job vacancies and skill gaps can be filled. Economic growth can be sustained. Services to an ageing population can be maintained where there are insufficient young people locally. The pension gap can be filled by the contributions of new young workers and they also pay taxes. Immigrants bring energy and innovation. Host countries are enriched by cultural diversity. It growth in economy. In the long term, both high and low skilled workers who migrate brings benefits facilitate to their new home countries by increasing income per person and living standards. High skilled migrants bring diverse talent and expertise, while low-skilled migrants fill essential occupation for which natives are in short supply and allow natives to be employed at higher-skilled jobs. Gains are broadly shared by the population, so it may be well worth shouldering the short- term costs to help integrate these new workers. The other positive effects of migration are that migrants get to see new places, meet new people, knows about culture, food habits and might pick up a new language or two. Settling down by all themselves make them more self-reliant and confident.
Negative effects of Migration:
The negative effects are, there is economic disadvantage for the origin country through the loss of young workers. There is loss of highly trained people especially health workers. The children face social problem who are left alone and growing up without wider family circle. The countries where people migrate also faces problem such as there can be depression in wages but it is temporary. They may have workers who are willing to work for relatively low pay that may allow employers to ignore productivity, training and innovation. Migrants can be exploited. Increase in population can put pressure on public sector. The migration can also increase the unemployment rate if there are unrestricted number of incomers. There may be integration difficulties and friction with local people. Large movements of people lead to more security monitoring and ease of movement may facilitate organized crime and people trafficking. By the immigrants’ perspective, Immigrant families almost always undergo stresses because different generation belong to different cultures. Often, grandparents whose English is very limited cannot communicate with their own grandchildren, who speaks only the language of the family’s new country. For most immigrants, the greatest obstacle to life in a new country is the new language. Adults typically have to struggle with new language for years.
The conclusion is migration is a feature of social and economic life across many countries, but the profile of migrant populations varies considerably. In part this is because of the variety of sources of migration. In much of Europe, for example, citizens enjoy extensive rights to free movement. In Australia, Canada and New Zealand, managed labor migration plays an important role. Other sources include family and humanitarian migration. Whatever its source, migration has important impacts on our societies, and these can be controversial. The economic impact of migration is no exception.